17th, March, presented cup to Colonel Torrens, cost of which was £50. Subscribed £1 – 19 – 6.
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Journal Entries written onboard the: Cygnet
Thursday 17 March 1836
Sunday 20 March 1836
20th. Embarked in the Shadwell Basin. Left the Dock an hour before flood tide, went to Gravesend, towed by a steamer, arrived about 6 o’clock.
Thursday 24 March 1836
24th. Left Gravesend at ½ past 12 o’clock, anchored near the Nore Light at 3. Strong gale from the West, Proceeded to the Downs, strong gale from the West, several vessels drove, wind moderating, up anchor at night and passing North Foreland, strong N.W. gale drove us to Margate roads, slipped 2 anchors and returned to the Downs.
Monday 28 March 1836
Mrs. Finniss unwell.
Saturday 2 April 1836
Read prayers Sunday for the first time. Wind changed to a strong… from N.E. got under weigh at 3 o’clock saw a brig foul of a ship lost her masts and became a complete wreck, another lost her bowsprit.
Monday 4 April 1836
Continued fine weather and N.E. breeze, very cold. Barometer rising, nearly 30 inches. Passed the Isle of Wight before noon.
Tuesday 5 April 1836
P.M. Anchored in Portland Roads, sheltered from all but East Winds. Sent a letter to O’Brien.
Wednesday 6 April 1836
Left the Roads at ½ past 1 0’clock, ebb tide. Wind N.E.
Thursday 7 April 1836
7th. Still beating off Portland! Wind N.W.
Remark 1. Nearly 3 weeks at sea between decks, still ‘Lumbered’ is an informal term mainly used in Britain to refer to someone being burdened with a thing, or things, unwanted. In shipping terminology, ‘much lumbered’ or ‘lumbered with’ were sometimes used to describe the state of decks that had become cluttered with cargo and other objects during storms. lumbered up, also the deck, Kingston complaining of the dirt below. I suggested that with troops, the men were ordered to parade with bare feet. He immediately determined to act upon this, and gave an order accordingly, Adams did not think proper to obey, but after some warning did so. The married passengers Chapman, Bristow, Hoare, Brown etc did not appear.
An untoward circumstance occurred soon after passing St. Antonio. one of the Cape Verde Islands. A favourite A breed of dog often used for hunting game. setter belonging to a passenger was thrown overboard during the night. Presumptive evidence fixed this act upon none [?] of the sailors.
Monday 9 May 1836
An unpleasant occurrence took place, one of the steerage passengers, complaining to the Doctor that his wife was neglected, was …[ ?] by the Doctor and knocked down.
Wednesday 11 May 1836
A military exercise in rifle handling. Drilled the The area of between-decks occupied by steerage passengers, that is, those travelling at the cheapest rate. steerage passengers with arms lent by Captain Rolls.
Lat. 4.21. Long. about 23. for the last three days, we had lost the N.E. Regular winds which move towards the equator within or near the tropics. The earth’s rotation drags them so that in the northen hemisphere they blow from the north-eastward and in the southern from the south-eastward. trade , and now experienced Without wind. calms and light winds from East with rain.
Thursday 12 May 1836
12th. Rainy, and light breeze from E. and by South, apparent the beginning of Regular winds which move towards the equator within or near the tropics, the earth’s rotation dragging them such that in the northen hemisphere they blow from the north-eastward and in the southern from the south-eastward. trades . Within the last two or three days the decks have been cleared and the passengers below, made comparatively comfortable. A great deal of A ship pitches when its head plunges up and down under the action of waves. pitching , wife and myself sick. Up to this period of the voyage saw very few A family of marine fish (Exocoetidae family) consisting on some 64 species. The species’ defining feature is their wing-like pectoral fins used for gliding above the water’s surface for up to 50 metres. Flying fish live in all oceans, but are particularly prevalent in warm tropical and sub-tropical waters. flying fish , and those not till we passed St. Antonio. Scarcely any birds, one tropical bird was seen 2 days S. of St. Antonio. A medium sized fish in the Mackerel family. Bonito and A type of tuna fish found in all tropical and temperate oceans. Albacore were seen in great numbers. Some of these fish were seen to leap upwards of 20 feet out of the water, and to spring horizontally upwards of 30 feet, apparently in pursuit of the flying fish. The A jelly like marine animal (more commonly known as a bluebottle jellyfish). Portuguese man-of-war was met with, of a large size, before reaching the Cape Verdes and afterwards very frequently but smaller. The top of the sail they put up is tinged with rose colour and the lower part reflects [?] the blue of the tendrils.
Saturday 14 May 1836
Took up a small[?] fish. This is the natural size, the rims and rays were blue. [NB sketch]
Sunday 15 May 1836
Sunday. 15th. Continued rain, occasional squalls, wind foul. Lat. 2. Long. 25.
Wednesday. 11th. Beaufust [?] made some cakes for Mrs. F. In this Lat. Found great comfort in the essence of coffee, which however, none have milk with it. The ship’s ale was good. Bread and honey and ham, the only things we could eat – not that we got ham – the best beverage was some lemon juice and sugar, made to effervesce with tartaric acid and soda. Thermometer generally about About 28 degrees Celsius.83 F in the cabin.
15th. May. Finding the day very close and not having observed any of the 25 of the The area of between-decks occupied by steerage passengers, that is, those travelling at the cheapest rate.steerage passengers on deck since the commencement of the damp weather, and being aware that there were 10 persons on the sick list I advised Kingston to insist upon the whole of the passengers coming up on deck to allow some of the foul air to escape. On examining the state of the berths, Bilge water accumulates in the bilge of a ship. The bilge is the lowest compartment on a ship, where the two sides meet at the keel.bilge water and vegetable matter had accumulated under the lower tier to [?] extent which must have proved highly prejudicial to health. The apathy of the steerage passengers was truly remarkable. This state of things was evidently caused by the want of attention to proper principles in fitting up the The area of between-decks occupied by steerage passengers, that is, those travelling at the cheapest rate.steerage . Previous to leaving the Dock the married persons should have been separated from the single men by An upright partition dividing a ship into compartments and serving to add structural rigidity.bulk heads and not by canvas, and tables should have been provided to enable the passengers to mess at regular hours and in comfort instead of making [t]heir berths a perpetual cook’s shop. Meals going on at all hours must be productive of dirt and disorder. I should certainly in future provide every grown up person with a canvas bag to contain a sufficient quantity of clothing for immediate use, and then prohibit the introduction of any boxes Between decks was the space between any two decks of a ship. It could be used for cargo or passengers but the term was associated with cheap accommodation for third class pasengers or emigrants on subsidised fares. Between decks provided accommodation without access to fresh air or natural light and was often cramped and crowded.between decks.
As an invariable principle the medical man should be provided with preserved meats and medical comforts.
Monday 16 May 1836
16th. This day was set apart to scouring the Decks which was superintended by Captain Lipson, every box and bed was brought upon Deck. Adams was very insolent and even mutinous, threatening with death Rogers or anyone who should obey Kingston. He was silenced by Captain Lipson, telling him he would land him at the Cape. James Hoare was drunk and very troublesome. The day before I had made some remarks to him about the want of attention to her duty displayed by his wife, who had now for some days been reported well by the Surgeon, but persisted in keeping below. James Hoare begged me to make another agreement, not including his wife, which I was very glad to accede to.
The whole crew got drunk this day, and were in a state of mutiny, constant complaints were urged by Kingston regarding the The galley or pantry of a small ship.cuddy table, bad sugar, bad tea, scanty supply of meat. Bad management, plates and cups always dirty. Sour A dark-brown, bitter beer brewed from charred or browned malt, thought originally to have been made especially for porters.porter, not ripe. Nothing for breakfast but salt pork. Table too short to hold all the passengers. Constant wrangling with the Captain. The Captain would not permit us to see the log slate or the charts, would not allow the Ships’ mates were either first, second or third officers who came directly under the command of the Captain. Mates were responsible for supervising watches, crew, navigation and safety equipment, and sometimes even served as the ship’s doctorMates to lend any; would not take any altitude to assist in the A ‘lunar distance’ was observed by measuring the angle between the sun and moon. Taken at a time related to the midday as determined by the sun’s passing, the longitude could then be calculated and use of this method was indicated by the symbol ‘À and Å’.lunars, would not allow the Ships’ mates were either first, second or third officers who came directly under the command of the Captain. Mates were responsible for supervising watches, crew, navigation and safety equipment, and sometimes even served as the ship’s doctorMates to do so.
Tuesday 17 May 1836
17th. Got the S.E. trade and crossed the line (the equator) in 27. Long.
Wednesday 18 May 1836
18th. Mrs. Hoare made her appearance in the Cabin.
Thursday 19 May 1836
19th. Strong breeze, nothing remarkable. Thermometer 83. Lat. 2.56.
Sunday 22 May 1836
Lat. 7.6 Long. 32.30 rather squally. Saw several gulls. Had a lunar yesterday.
Saturday 28 May 1836
Within 18 miles of Bahia on the Brazilian coast, steering S.W. This being the King William IV’s birthday was celebrated in May 1836. His 71st birthday actually fell on 21 August 1836. Historically, official birthday celebrations of the British monarch bore no relation to the actual day of the current monarch’s birthday. King’s birthday , drank Abbreviation of ‘His Majesty’s’. In 1836 William IV was reigning King of England. H.M.’s health with 3 times three, and sent several bottles of wine to the The area of between-decks occupied by steerage passengers, that is, those travelling at the cheapest rate. steerage . Kingston and the Captain had another row. Saw a large species of gull.
Sunday 29 May 1836
29th. About Ship, and stood off the land, abundance of the petrel called Mother Carey’s chickens.
Saturday 4 June 1836
4th June. There is a [?] from the Captain
Sunday 5 June 1836
5th June. Found the Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. latitude by the stars at midnight. 16.28. being about 90 miles and 30 miles to The direction from which the wind blows. The other direction is termed ‘leeward’. windward of the Brazilian shoals.
Friday 10 June 1836
10th June. Passed the Brazilian shoals steering fro Rio.
Saturday 11 June 1836
11th. Wind from the S. West.
N.B. On Thursday the 9th. ship’s head steering E. of South hauled up to Westward for Rio.
Wednesday 15 June 1836
15th. Saw Cape Frio bearing N.W. by distant 14 miles Wind from the S.W. hazy.
Difference of Longitude is the distance, measured in degrees, of the meridian on which a point lies to the meridian of Greenwich. On the other side of the earth to Greenwich is a point with a longitude of both 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west. Long. between Rio and Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. Lat. place where we Ships cannot sail directly into the wind but they can progress towards wind direction by sailing obliquely to it. To tack is to present the other side of the ship to the wind by sailing through it, taking advantage of forward momentum as well as an adjustment of sails. tacked 360 miles, Miles at sea are nautical miles, equal to 1.15 statute miles or 1.85 kilometres. The nautical mile is the length of a minute of latitude, or of longitude at the equator where the earth rotates at the rate of one nautical mile per minute of time. nautical .
Sunday 19 June 1836
19th. Standing towards Rio Harbour, after having made it two days before. Found great numbers of The Cape Petrel (often called a Cape Pigeon) is a common seabird of the Southern Ocean. They have a speckled black and white appearance and an 86cm wing span. Cape pigeons , also a larger gull, and one with a yellow stripe down the beak from the top of the head. On the 17th. spoke to Morphett about the impolicy of putting into Rio instead of going to the Cape. It appeared to me that Kingston, instead of taking the advice of those who were selected as his assistants, preferred that of Mr. Morphett on most occasions. This behaviour to Rogers evinced this, on which occasion Mr Morphett again interfered ——– I here allude to Mr. Morphett’s servant having cut down Rogers’ hammock.
Monday 20 June 1836
20th. Captain Rolls shot Cannon [John Cannan, passenger on board the Cygnet. Cannan ?] in the hand accidentally while loading a firelock. Cannon [John Cannan, passenger on board the Cygnet. Cannan ?] was in the On a vessel with three masts the one at the back is called the mizzenmast. Mizen top.
Tuesday 21 June 1836
21st. 11 P.M. Anchored under the Sugar Loaf Mountain at Rio in 15 A fathom is a measure of depth in the imperial system. One fathom is equal to six feet or 1.83 metres. fathoms . Sailed in with Studding sails were set outside the square sails in fine weather and with a fair wind. Their head was fastened to a short yard hoisted to the end of the upper yard and their foot extended by a boom slid out from the lower yard. They took their name, such as main topmast studding sail, from the adjacent sail. studding sails set, as we drew near the anchorage Captain Rolls and the A merchant ship’s officer next in rank below the first mate; also known as a ‘second officer’. 2nd. Mate expressed some anxiety to have the assistance of our people. This assistance was afforded by Mr Kingston, but he ordered all the passengers below on account of some words which passed between them. Feeling the critical situation we were in and Captain Lipson having called my attention to the fact, I went to speak to Kingston on the subject, only because I felt it due to myself to neglect nothing that concerned the general safety. Kingston appeared to be acting under the influence of temper, and I left him considerably annoyed with the result. Though Mr. Kingston evidently [?] himself in what he considered the best manner to promote the success of the expedition, still it was evident to any person of even slight experience that he proceeded on erroneous principles. He certainly deserved the gratitude of the cabin passengers for his exertion to secure them a due supply of fresh provisions, but in every other respect he committed the grossest blunders and acted without the least judgement or discretion. His principal aim seemed to be directed to annoy the Captain, and his demands were most preposterous. This evening as an instance, at ½ past 11 o’clock he insisted upon the A ship’s officer in charge of provisions and meals. steward opening a fresh cask to get him a bottle of beer, without reflecting that at such an hour servants claim the privilege of going to bed.
Wednesday 22 June 1836
22June At ¼ to 12 entered the harbour of Rio. The anchorage was due West of two islands on the right of the Harbour. S.W. bore Round Island, S.S.W. the Light house. Steered in N. by W. right on the Fort at the right.
The scenery on the left was singularly wild and beautiful, consisting of rugged mountains covered with rich wood, except on those spots where the bold rocky projections formed a contrast.
The highest land on the right measured 2.30. At the distance of about 2 miles on the left Lord Hood’s nose 2.55! Distance 2 miles.
Sugar Loaf 4.31 distant 1 mile. Mountain opposite rather lower.
Friday 24 June 1836
Friday. 24th. Still at anchor in Rio. Kingston and Morphett came on board in a Sailing ships carried various smaller boats for different purposes. A shore boat was an open row boat for transporting people and goods between the ship and shore. shore boat and went off again; was informed by Morphett that they had hired or intended to have hired a carriage to call on the Ambassador: that they had taken rooms at Johnson’s Hotel.
23rd. Went in a boat with the ladies on a picknic expedition.
24th. Arrived the City of Edinburgh, Indiaman, in 49 days from London, Crossed the equator. crossed the line in 20.
Saturday 25 June 1836
25th. Last evening the boat returned with the passengers, all drunk. N.B. Previous to the starting of the boat it was fully understood between Kingston and myself, that he was responsible for everything.
Saturday. Ascertained that there were 9 casks left filled with salt water in the fore hold, which the Captain told me he would not start. I informed Kingston on his return the same night. Had stinking water till this day.
Sunday 26 June 1836
26 June. Kingston informed the Captain that he insisted on these casks being To start, applied to liquids, is to empty the container. started . This evening the crew struck work. The Captain caused all the boats to be chained.
Monday 27 June 1836
Monday, 27th. Nothing done on board the ship. Some pigs and poultry on board this morning. No work done by the crew. The Captain went on shore to lay his statement before the Consul. This evening remarked to Kingston that the expedition was suffering from this delay, advised him to divide his party into watches, and put them under the orders of the Captain for the work of the ship, begged him to begin early the next morning and to consult the authorities as to the steps he should take to compel the Captain to man his vessel. The Captain was drunk to-night.
Tuesday 28 June 1836
28th. 4 Brazilian soldiers came for 4 of the mutineers. The crew said they would all go and did so, except the carpenter. Kingston gave the Captain a letter which the latter did not open but left on the table when he went on shore. Kingston did not insist on his reading it. The Captain left the ship, when he was gone Kingston told the Mate to To start, applied to liquids, is to empty the container. start the water, the Mate said he had no hands, Kingston offered his party. After breakfast Kingston assembled his men and said something to them about working. I inferred from a few expressions that they would not work because the Captain had promised them 3/6 a day and had not paid them. Sent a letter to my father.
The An iron tank rather than a wooden cask used for carrying water or storing bread and other dry provisions. tank came alongside and lay there, there being no where to put the water, Kingston said he had done all he could. The Captain came home drunk. Beat Ben – a terrible row midnight.
Wednesday 29 June 1836
Stock and fodder and water all on board. Went to fetch Captain Lipson. Dr. Wright very drunk, quarrelling with Mr. Neale, afterwards with the carpenter and Mr. Kingston. The Captain interfered and ordered the carpenter off the quarter deck which the latter refused to obey.
Thursday 30 June 1836
30th. The A flag hoisted ashore to indicate that the vessel has been cleared out at Customs and is legally free to leave port. However, on the day a ship is to sail a ‘Blue Peter’ is hoisted at the head of the foremast. This flag is blue with a central white square. custom house flag was set on the The mast nearest the bow on vessels with two or more masts. fore mast .
Mr. Kingston, Morphett and Gilbert came on board late last night stating that they had been to the Consul about manning the ship. On Captain Lipson observing that the delay to the expedition was most shameful, Kingston though not addressed, wanted to know if Captain Lipson imputed blame to him. Captain Lipson replied, that if he considered himself responsible for the sailing of the ship, he deserved censure. The conversation ended by Kingston saying he had nothing to do with the delay. Kingston said hastily, ‘don’t bother me,’ and retired to his cabin.
N.B. Mr Kingston used expressions on this day in my presence and in the presence of other passengers tending to shew that he wished himself to be considered as the person who was to decide upon the proper time for the vessel to sail. His behaviour to Captain Lipson was most insulting. This day we received a paper informing us that the The last of the nine ships to leave England and the last to arrive in South Australia on 28 December 1836. The ship conveyed Governor Hindmarsh, his officials and other passengers. Buffalo was commissioned on the 23 April.
Friday 1 July 1836
Went on board the Dublin.
Saturday 2 July 1836
The Captain informed me that the ship was cleared and that all his crew were engaged. Meant to sail next morning. ½ past 9 P.M. Captain Rolls came on board to say that business would prevent his going tomorrow; he attributed the delay to the Consul. The Consul stated to Captain Lipson that the only [...]
Sunday 3 July 1836
3rd. Sunday. Went on shore with the Lipsons.
Monday 4 July 1836
4th. Monday. Captain Rolls went on shore, and sent for Kingston. Captain Lipson received a note from Mr. Gilbert saying it was Kingston’s desire that he should be made acquainted with the fact that he had ascertained at the Consul’s that Hudson retained the Captain’s papers as security for the ship’s supplies, till he received a bottomry [...]
Tuesday 5 July 1836
5th. Tuesday. At 10 o’clock the A port health officer who inspects the health of all on board, usually upon arrival at a foreign port. A ship remains in quarantine on arrival in port until it has been granted its certificate of pratique. Pratique officer arrived on board and the ship got under weigh steering S. by E. Wind from the eastward.
Wednesday 6 July 1836
6 July. Made 136 miles southing ship’s head S.S.E close-hauled on the Larboard tack. 3. o’clock, squalls.
Thursday 7 July 1836
7th. Thursday. Captain Lipson offered to Kingston to divide the crew into watches, and teach them the management of the ship, Kingston replied he must consider. N.B. Previous to this I had observed to Kingston the necessity of putting his men on duty to learn the management of the ship.
Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. Lat. At noon 27.8. Steering S.E. by South. 5 The speed of ship or wind in nautical miles per hour. A float is dropped overboard and the speed is indicated by the rate at which the ship sails away from it. Spacing of knots in the log-line connected to the float is in same proportion to a mile as the half-minute sandglass used is to an hour, thus the number knots counted off in the time is the speed in knots. knots .
Friday 8 July 1836
8th. Friday. Set studding sails at 8 o’clock, wind from the N.E. Lat. 29.6. Yesterday Captain Rolls told Captain Lipson that on his arrival in Rio, Hudson the Agent agreed to take his Bill for cash and supplies for tthe ship, but that when all the stores were on board he demanded a bottomry bill. [...]
Saturday 9 July 1836
9th. Saturday. Yesterday Kingston complained of the biscuits.
Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. Lat. 29.30. Longitude is the distance, measured in degrees, of the meridian on which a point lies to the meridian of Greenwich. On the other side of the earth to Greenwich is a point with a longitude of both 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west. Long 39.1. Wind on the The old term for the left hand side of a ship looking forward. The right hand side is starboard. To avoid mis-hearing an order, it is now referred to as ‘port’. Larboard quarter since 10 o’clock.
Friday 29 July 1836
passed the Cape in Latitude
37½. This day the Steerage passengers
refused to get a cask of biscuits from the hold
Friday 12 August 1836
12th July [sic, August] steering East. after the cloth
was removed yesterday from the Dinner
table James Hoare came to the Cabin door
to say that two of the Sladdens were fighting
between decks. Upon this Kingston arose
and went to see what was the matter
there was an assemblage of persons
near the Main Mast: shortly after
Mr Morphett came to the door in a
hurried manner and said gentle
men your assistance is required one of the
steerage passengers has even threatened
to strike Mr Kingston. …
This morning I observed to Mr Gilbert
the impropriety of Mr Morphetts address
at the Cuddy table. I told him that
Kingston was less fitted to command
a body of men on such an expedition
as this than anyone of the Cabin
passengers. I told him we could not
complain of the language used by
Steerage passengers after what he
must have heard fall from the lips of
the cabin passengers, that he
could not be surprised at a man
being quarrelsome in liquor since
it was a failing common to our
own table; that I heard Kingston
and Sladden disputing about which
was the gentleman of the two: this
could not be wondered at when a cabin
passenger had previously taken the
trouble to tell the steerage passengers
they were all gentlemen.
I also touched upon the subject of
Mrs Paris saying that Kingston
ought to have attended to this
subject and ended by saying I
shuddered for the fate of
an expedition under such manage
Wednesday 17 August 1836
12 oclock passed six miles to the South of Amsterdam. Saw 6 or 7 whalers lying to under the lea of the Island.
Monday 22 August 1836
The Lantern took fire in Powys’s cabin during his absence. Captain Lipson carried it upon Deck and threw it overboard
Tuesday 23 August 1836
23. 11 oclock P.M – A great row in
the The galley or pantry of a small ship. Cuddy Kingston, the Captain and
Friday 9 September 1836
9th Sep sailed up Investigators Strait with the
wind from the Southward. when about 14
miles from point Marsden we were board
by a boat which proved to be the
whale boat of the Duke of York whose
Captain was in her. He had come round
for vegetables which were grown in the
garden of a settler. He informed us that
the Duke of York had anchored 44 days
that the Lady Mary Pelham, the John
Pirie had also arrived as well as Coll
Light with the Rapid. We learnt also
that Coll Light having waited for a
a fortnight had left the Island to
proceed round the Gulph St Vincent
about 2 days ago.
Saturday 10 September 1836
10th at noon within 6 miles of point Marsden close hauled beating up with a strong tide carrying us bodily to leeward the moon was new at midnight the old moon having passed the Meridian at 20 to 12. At 2 oclock on the morning of the 10th the tide appeared to slacken for the [...]
Sunday 11 September 1836
Anchored in Nepean Bay 11th Sep. Kingston
received a letter from Coll Light acquainting
him that after forming his settlement and
landing the stores at Fresh water River, He
was to proceed in the Cygnet with the Surveyors
to Port Lincoln.
Wednesday 14 September 1836
Nepean Bay Kangaroo Island 14th Sepr, 1836 I am sure you will be pleased to hear that we arrived here safely the day before yesterday after a long but calm and pleasant passage. We got off the Western Coast of Kangaroo Island the beginning of last week after a favourable run from Rio, but had [...]
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